Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin with many functions. Most animals and plants can produce their own vitamin C from glucose. So, Humans must obtain vitamin C from food, as some fruit bats, guinea pigs, and human-like primates cannot produce vitamin C.
Ascorbic acid is a monosaccharide derivative, similar in structure to glucose and other six-carbon monosaccharides. They are colorless, white, oblong crystals. It has a very light specific smell. It tastes sour and has an acid reaction. Optically active. Turns polarized light to the right. It is very poorly soluble in acetone. It is insoluble in ether, petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, and oils. Chemically, vitamin C is the left-reversing enantiomer of ascorbic acid. Commercial vitamin C is generally composed of ascorbic acid crystals or calcium or sodium salts of ascorbic acid. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is found in very high concentrations (millimolar and above) in the aqueous parts of many animal tissues such as the spinal cord, lungs and eyes.
Precise measurement of vitamin C is essential for both its biochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The role of ascorbic acid in biological systems, the function and requirements of vitamin C must be considered together with two factors: First, the biochemical properties of vitamin C, including its ability to act as both an antioxidant and an enzyme cofactor. The second is its pharmacokinetics, including intestinal absorption, serum concentration, cellular distribution, utilization and excretion.
Ascorbic acid found in all living tissues. The richest sources of this vitamin, which is widely found in nature, are fresh fruits and vegetables. Among the fruits, those containing the most ascorbic acid; lemon, orange, grapefruit, kiwi, pineapple, strawberry and blackcurrant. Apple, pear and plum, on the other hand, contain less ascorbic acid. Among these fruits, especially citrus fruits (lemon, orange, grapefruit), kiwi and tomato outer parts (skin) are rich in ascorbic acid.
Vegetables, especially rosehip, cauliflower, cabbage, spinach, onion, pepper, radish, cress, parsley and Jerusalem artichoke are the richest sources of ascorbic acid.
The most well-known uses of vitamin C are in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Meanwhile, This vitamin, which is of great importance for human life, should include in meals in a daily period. For this, experts recommend consuming vegetables and fruits, especially those containing plenty of vitamin C. However, when an additional supplement is in need, vitamin C in tablet form can also be applicable. Since this vitamin is water-soluble, the tablets in question also offered for consumption in the form of effervescent.
In the food and cosmetics industries, the unprocessed form of vitamin C generally used. Being a powerful antioxidant, this vitamin can be usable to extend the shelf life of frozen foods or to increase the nutritional value of any food product. Vitamin C, which stands out with its antioxidant feature in the cosmetics industry, mainly includes in the content of skin care products such as creams, serums and lotions.